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L'intramuscular injection, or intramuscular, is a popular method for administering drugs of various kinds. Doing so is also relatively easy, considering that it is sufficient to introduce a drug directly on the muscle, in order to guarantee faster absorption than subcutaneous administration, and / or when oral administration is not possible or not recommended.
Having said that, and introduced the fact that how to make an intramuscular syringe it should be an exclusively medical and nursing issue, let's try to find out more in our short study on this topic!
Where to perform the intramuscular injection
Intramuscular injection can be performed in 5 different locations. The choice of one or the other location will naturally depend on the assessments made in the health sector.
The first seat is that of deltoid muscle, in the most compact part of the same. Considering that the muscle is quite small, it follows that the volume and number of administrations must be limited. Alternatively, you can use the dorsogluteal site: it is the most used site, even if it is not the most recommended due to the presence of large nerves, fat and blood vessels that are located here, and which therefore could open scenarios of complications of various kinds.
Then there is a third location, which is that rectofemoral, located midway between the superior iliac crest and the patella, in the anterior middle of the thigh. It is generally used for self-administration or if other sites are contraindicated. In other cases, it is generally avoided to resort to this site as it is more painful and able to guarantee slower absorption than the arm.
We therefore find that as the fourth seat vastolateral, located between the greater trochanter of the femur and the lateral femoral condyle of the knee, in the middle third of the thigh, while as the fifth and last site we find that ventrogluteal, generally preferred for intramuscular injections, as it is free from penetrating nerves and blood vessels.
In summary, the preferred sites of choice for intramuscular injection are the deltoid, vastolateral and ventrogluteal ones. The others are not the subject of specific recommendations unless there are specific indications for that particular type of drug.
How the intramuscular injection is performed
Let us now try to understand how to do an intramuscular injection.
The most common method is to insert the needle at 90 degrees with the dominant hand, with a quick and decisive movement, after having stretched the skin between the fingers of the non-dominant hand.
Well, although it is certainly the most widespread method, it is certainly not the most advisable one. Best practices now suggest the so-called Z section technique. But what does it consist of?
In summary, it consists of using the non-dominant hand to be able to pull the skin and subcutaneous tissue on one side by about 3-4 centimeters with respect to the insertion point. The dominant hand instead introduces the needle holding it at 90 degrees to the skin. Once the administration of the drug is finished, the needle must be extracted quickly and the tissue released, exerting a slight pressure. This technique allows you to create a non-straight path, thus preventing the liquid from rising into the subcutaneous tissues. The pain should be minimized by the movement decided by the healthcare staff responsible for carrying out the intramuscular injection.
How much liquid to use in intramuscular injection
But how much liquid to use in the intramuscular injection?
Of course, as can be easily understood, the volume of the liquid to be injected with the intramuscular injection varies according to the site. In any case, it should not exceed 5 ml in adults.
How long should the needle be?
Moving on to the analysis of the needle size, there are no specific recommendations, other than to use the smallest possible size, as far as it can hold all the required volume.
The needle used for the preparation of the drug must also be replaced before puncturing the skin: the needle for aspiration must be of small caliber, to prevent the microparticles extraneous to the drug from being aspirated together with the same. It must then be replaced in order to prevent the residual ones inside from coming into contact with the skin.
The length of the needle, on the other hand, is of little importance, considering that the pain receptors are concentrated on the skin, and therefore once the tip is pierced, the remaining length does not significantly affect the perception of pain. Therefore, the only length to take into account is obviously the one that will allow the drug to settle on the muscle.
As for the administration time, the minimum is about 5 seconds. The injection speed of the liquid must in fact be slow both in order to reduce pain and to facilitate the absorption of the same medicine.
Hopefully this guide on how to make an intramuscular syringe was useful in clearing any doubts on this issue. Our suggestion can of course only be that of having this operation carried out by expert personnel, thus avoiding do-it-yourself: even a poorly made intramuscular injection could in fact have rather significant consequences.